Rendering requires specifying a template and a view.

Overview: Templates and Views

A template may be either a string containing mustache markup, or a string referencing a mustache template file. For simplicity, the suffix of the file may be omitted, and a suffix will be appended; by default, this is .mustache, but you may also specify your own custom suffix.

Templates will typically provide placeholders for variables, using a double pair of braces (mustaches!) to enclose the variable name:

Hello, {{name}}!

While additional syntax is available, this is the most basic concept to understand.

By default, variable values are escaped. This is to provide safe markup and reduce the chances of cross-site-scripting attacks (XSS). If you know a value will be safe for output and/or do not want it escaped, surround the variable using three braces:

Hello, {{{name}}}!

A view is either an associative array or an object. In the case of an associative array, template variables will reference array keys. In the case of an object, template variables may reference either a public property, or a public method. If a public method is referenced, or if the property value is a valid PHP callback, the return value from invoking the member will be returned.

The following are equivalent views:

// Associative array view:
$view = array(
    'name'    => 'Matthew',
    'twitter' => 'mwop',

// Anonymous class view:
$view = new stdClass;
$view->name = 'Matthew';
$view->twitter = 'mwop';

// Class-based view:
class Matthew
    public $name = 'Matthew';
    public function twitter()
        return 'mwop';
$view = new Matthew();

While the last example is contrived, it does demonstrate that methods and properties are interchangeable.

Sometimes, you may want to create nested structures:

$view = array(
    'name' => 'Matthew',
    'contact' => array(
        'twitter' => 'mwop',
        'github'  => 'weierophinney',

Within your template, you can use "dot notation" to dereference such nested structures. Basically, a "dot" indicates that the preceding value should refer to an associative array or object, and that the segment following it should be retrieved:

The github user for {{name}} is {{contact.github}}.

The above will result in:

The github user for Matthew is weierophinney.

Now that you know about basic templating, variable substitution, and views, let's look at how you actually render using phly-mustache.

Rendering String Templates

$test = $mustache->render(
    'Hello {{planet}}',
    array('planet' => 'World')
echo $test;

which outputs as

Hello World

In the coming examples I will skip the echo statement to reduce code size. I am also omitting all opening <?php tags.

Rendering File Templates

Let the template be renders-file-templates.mustache in your templates folder. From here onwards, we assume you have your template in templates folder. Comments inside templates are marked between {{! and }}. Please note the character !.

Hello {{planet}}

Now you can render it

$test = $mustache->render('renders-file-templates', array(
    'planet' => 'World',

Outputs :

Hello World

Template Suffix

You may have noticed we have not added the suffix when we pass the template name. By default the suffix is ".mustache". However, you can change the suffix as desired; as an example, you might want to simply use .html.

To do this, fetch the DefaultResolver from the list of resolvers composed, and set the suffix you wish to use:

use Phly\Mustache\Resolver\DefaultResolver;

$test = $mustache->render('alternate-suffix', array());

The above will look for the file alternate-suffix.html in your templates folder.

Rendering Object Properties

You are not limited to associative arrays for your views; you can also use objects, and phly-mustache will render object properties.

As an example, consider the following PHP code:

$view         = new stdClass;
$view->planet = 'World';

$test = $mustache->render(
    'Hello {{planet}}',

The above will use the $planet property of the $view object to fill the template.

Now consider the following template:


With the following script:

$view          = new stdClass;
$view->content = 'This is the content';
$test = $mustache->render('render-object-properties', $view);

You will see the content filled from the $content property of the view object.

Rendering methods which return a value

Let's assume you have a class ViewWithMethod, and it contains a method taxed_value.

class ViewWithMethod
    public $name  = 'Chris';
    public $value = 1000000;
    public $in_ca = true;

    public function taxed_value()
        return $this->value - ($this->value * 0.4);

If taxed_value is referenced in the template, the return value of that method will be used.

Hello {{name}}
You have just won ${{taxed_value}}!

The following renders the above template with an instance of the previous view:

$chris = new ViewWithMethod();
$test = $mustache->render(

Giving us the following output:

Hello Chris
You have just won $600000!